4C’s –Value of diamonds is depends on 4C’s – Cut, Colour, Carat (size) & Clarity. more detail…

Acrylic Jewellery -Articles of contemporary Jewellery made with a PLASTIC material that is used in shed rod or liquid resin form.

Alloy - A mixture of two or more compatible metals.

Armlet - An ornament worn on upper arm, made in various materials, forms and styles in different regions and cultures.

Assorting – Classification of rough Diamonds according to their colour and quality.

Baguette -Faceted stone in small rectangular shape in step cut..

Ball-chain – A type of chain composed of small metal balls joined by tiny metal connections.

Band – A ring having same width all over.

Bandeau - A type of head ornament in the form of a narrow band encircling for head, as worn by medieval Italian women.

Bandelete -A type of head ornament in the form of a decorated small band orribbon worn by women in the hair.

Bangle - Anon flexible hand ornament (circular or oval) that slips over the hand or is hinged and closed by a clasp.

Bazubandh – An article of MUGHAL JEWELLERY in the form of a gold ornament decorated with enameling and gem stones, which is tied aroundthe upper arm.

Bead – A stone cut into an oblate, cylindrical, polyhedral or irregular shape.

Belt Buckle – A type of Buckle for fastening a belt.

Bezel – A kind of stone setting.

Birth stone – A gemstone designated by custom, religious tradition and superstition as being related to the month of one’s birth. In 1939 the National Association of gold smiths of great Britain established a uniform lost worth some alternatives for the more costly stoner as follows:-

January - Garnet
February - Amethyst
March - Aquamarine (Blood stone)
April - Diamond (rock crystal)
May - Emerald (chrysopprase)
June - Pearl (moonstone)
July - Ruby (cornelian or onyx)
August - Peridol
September - Sapphire (lapis-lazuli)
October - Opal tourmaline
November - Topaz (citrine)
December - turquoise

Black Pearl - A pearl of blackish gun metal color one of the most valuable varieties.

Black star of Africa - A so called black diamond of 202 carats, found in Zaire (Congo). It is
one of the famous diamonds of the world.

Blue Diamond of the Crown – This blue diamond was found in the Kollur mine near Golconda in Southern India weighting 112 3/16 and Indian cut

Blue heart Diamond – Indian cut deep-blue diamond weighing 112.50 carats rough.

Button Pearl – A type of natural or culture pearl that is flat on one side or bun-shaped.

Bracelet - An ornament worn on the wrist or forearm as a flexible band or series of links, in contrast to a BANGLE, which is rigid. Such ornaments have been worn by men as well as women.

Brass- An alloy of copper and zinc, in varying proportions.

Bridal Crown - A type of crown worn by a bride at the wedding ceremony.

Brilliant Cut - the style of cu ting diamond or other gem, having 57 facets that are mathematically devised produce the brilliance.

Brooch - An ornamental clasp having on attached pin for affixing it to a garment, Hat ,Hood , Turban or Sleeve, Sarees, suit as a fastener or as adecorative piece.

Bruiting -The process of roughly shaping a diamond or other transparent gemstone.

Burma Ruby - A variety of ruby comes from Burma.

Cabochon -A stone cut with a smoothroundedsurface, highly polished but without facets.

CAD – Computer aided 2 dimension or 3 dimension Jewellery Designing.

Cadmium –Cadmium is a toxic heavy metalfound fron Zink & used for soldering jewellery.

CAM –Computer aided molding.

Carat -The unit of weight for a diamond & other gemstones. more detail… (link to Diamonds)

Cartier - A leading French Jewllery firm.

Carving -A process of decorating metal or a gemstone by cutting it to produce an artistic pattern.

Casting - The process of shaping metal objects by pouring metal into a hollow mould which has been made from a model of the desired article.

Cent – The smaller unit of weight for diamonds & precious stones. 1 carat is equal to 100 cents.

Chandelier Earring -A type of ear-ring with long dangles.

Channel Setting – A style of setting in a Jewellery to secure a single raw of gemstones or diamonds of different shapes, made of two bands bridged together to secure the stone between them.

Choker - A short narrow necklace that worn close to a woman’s throat.

Clarity –Cleanliness of a gemstone. more detail…

Cleaving –Splitting a stone along the cleavage plane. more detail…

Coal -Coal is a black, hard, shine less object; it is prepared by burning of wood or dug up from mines. Various machines are driven by its energy.

Collet -A circular band or metal in which a gemstone is set.

Coloured Stones - Colored stones is a trade term for all gemstones except diamond. (Even those those are colorless).

Copper – A metal with red colour. more detail…

Costume Jewellery– Various articles so moderate- prices of inexpensive jewellery, originally pieces suitable for a particular type of costume but now applied to two classes of jewellery: 1) gem-set imitation, which resemble precious jewellery but are made usually of silver, sometimes rhodium-coated or pinchbeck and set with substitutes for gemstones, e.g. Marcasite, paste or synthetic gemstones; although usually the stones are cemented, some are hand-set. 2) Article made of some base metals and imitations of gemstones, being intended as a novelty and to meet an ephemeral fashion trend. Usually this kind of jewellery made from less valuable materials like silver, copper, bronze, nickel, brass, lead, plastic, acrylic, leather, wood, crystals, zirconium, glass, thread, shell, hair etc…

Crown – In brilliant & step cut gemstones the upper or top (above the girdle) part called crown.

Crystallography -Crystallography is the science of crystals

Cubic Zirconia –A synthetic gemstone that is a stimulant for a diamond in short forms it’s called “C.Z.”

Cuff Link - A device that is employed to join temporarily the two ends of a cuff around the wearer’s wrist without overlapping the cuff ends being inserted through two buttonholes.

Culet – The pointed bottom part of brilliant or step cut gemstones called culet.

Cullinan Diamond –The largest diamond ever found was 3106 carats in the rough and originally weighted just under one and a half pound. The Cullinan was cut into 9 major stones and 96 smaller stones.

Cultured Pearl – A variety of pearl that is created by a mollusk in the some manner as a natural pearl except that the process is stimulated by the human insert ion into the shell of a grain of a sand a bead a peace of mantle tissue or other irritant that becomes the nucleus of the pearl when encased in many years of Nacre.

Cut - The final form into which a rough gemstone is shaped.

Cutting - The process and art of shaping precious stones 2 other gemstone by severing part of it form its original form (after Bruiting) so as to enhance its brilliancy.

Darya-i-nur (Iran) Diamond - The world’s largest pink diamond, now in the crown Jewels at Tehran. It is a rectangular step cut stone, pale pink, measuring 3.75*2.5 cm , and weighting 182 carats.

Designer-Who imagine the ornamental peace before craft, and realize on paper is known as designer.

Diamond – A precious stone that is pure nation crystallized carbon, highly valued, especially when from flaws and cut into various forms with differently shaped facets of variable numbers and positions and consequently showing great brilliance and prismatic colors. It is theardest substance known, being rated 10on the Moh’s SCALE, hence it can be cut or faceted only with another diamond or diamond powder.

Diamond Certification –The Certificate provides genuine details of a diamond issued by any Neutral Organization.

Diamond color -The rang of colors found in natural untreated diamonds, due possibly to defects in the atomic lattice of the atone rather than to traces of minerals, Completely colorless stones are extremely rare and valuable , and most stone used in Jewellery are tinged from white to bluish to shades of yellow or brown. more detail…

Diamond Cutting - The process of altering the shapeand surface of a diamond from its original crude from to a finished stone with facets selected to provide maximum brilliance and with the least waste of material.more detail…

Diamond color Grading –Classifying diamonds according to colour saturation is known as colour grading.The letter range down from colour-less to yellow or brown, and known by alphabets; from “D” to “Z” .

Diamond Gauge - An instrument to measure a stone in millimeter.

Diamond Polishing –more detail…

Diamond Valuation – more detail…

Drop pearl- A type of pearl that is drop shaped.

Ear ornaments - An ornaments of various forms and styles worn on the ear including the ear-screw, ear spool, ear stuff, full ear chain etc.

Electroplating – The process to coating a metallic object with a thin layer of other metal by using electrical current to reduce cation of a desired material from a solution.

Embossing -A technique of producing relief decoration by raising the surface of thin metal from the reverse to form the design.

Emerald Cut- more detail…

Enamel -A pigment of vitreous nature composed usually of powdered potash and silica, bound with oil, colored with metallic oxides and applied to porcelain, gold, silver, copper, glass etc. as a surface decoration by low temperature firing.

Enameling –The technique of decorating various materials like: gold, silver, copper, glass etc… by using Enamel on the surface to paint scenes, figures or inscriptions or in grooves or depressions in metal by filling in certain areas. The process of using enamel colours was known in India from 3000 BC, in Egypt from 1600 BC and in the Mycenaean world from about 1400 BC.

Engraving – The process to decorate metal or gemstones with a carved or engraved design, monogram or portrait.

Engagement Ring -A finger ring of no generally accepted form that given by a man to his fiancé as a token of marriage engagement. In recent years rings have normally been set with a diamond as a solitaire, of varying sizes, cuts, styles and cost.

Face - A place, such as those that bound a crystal in its natural state, as distinguished from a man – made facet.

Facet - One of the small, plane surfaces of a cut diamond or gemstone.

Faceted Girdle - The girdle of a diamond on which a band of small facets has been cut to increase the brilliance.

Faceting- The process of cutting a diamond or other gemstone, so as to have its surface completely covered with facets.

Fancy Cut Diamond – Any other shape of diamond excluding round brilliant cut are called Fancy cut Diamond.

Fancy Diamond or Fancy Colour Diamond -A diamond of one of various pronounced colors.

Famous Diamonds – Some unique diamonds are world famous due to their colour, size, beauty and history. Such as 1) The Koh-i-noor: Oval shaped white diamond, found from Golconda mine - India. 2) The Agra Diamond: Found in India by the Mogul Emperors in 15th or 16th century. 3) The Cullinan Diamond (Great Star of Africa): Found from South African mine & one of the largest diamond ever found. Its original weight is 3106 carat. One other famous diamond ‘Star of Africa’ is made from this diamond. 4) The Hope Diamond: Blue coloured diamond of 44 carat. 5) The Excelsior Diamond: In rough 995 carat weighted diamond was found in 1893 from African mine. Now it is of 69 carat weighted. 6) The Regent Diamond: Originally 410 carat weighted diamond, was found from Golconda mine India in 1701. 7) The Taylor-Burton Diamond – Famous jewellery company Cartier paid 10, 50,000$ in auction, to purchase this diamond, and now its known as Cartier Diamond. 8) The Orloff: Slightly bluish-green coloured Diamond found from India & weight 300 carat when found. It also has great history like the Koh-i-Noor. 9) The Centenary Diamond: Found in 1986 from Premier Mine & of 273.85 Carats weight. Only two Diamonds are bigger then it - Great Star of Africa (530.2 carat) & Lesser Star of Africa (317.4 carat). 10) The Idol’s Eye: This 70.20 carats’ diamond is of pear shape. It’s found from Golconda mine, India in 16th century. 11) The Sancy: Shield shaped – pale-yellow Diamond of 55.23 carats. Many other notable Diamonds are famous by their history & size. Some others are: The Ahmedabad Diamond, The American Star, The Arcots, The Blue Empress, The Briolette of India, The Darya-i-Noor, The Earth Star, The Millennium Star, The Pink Orchid, The Star of America, The Star of the East etc…

Filigree - A type of decoration on metal ware made by use of fine wire, plain, twisted or plaited.

Fluorescence– Many diamonds possess the property of emitting a light blue fluorescence. It is induced by radiation enriched with ultra-violet light components and is visible for the duration of the radiation. An occasional persistence of light emission is termed phosphorescence. In most diamonds, however the fluorescence is slight that it can only be evoked by direct radiation with radiation with concentrated short or long-wave ultra violet light. In much rarer cases the blue fluorescence is evoked even by the concentration of ultra-violet rays in daylight.

Fresh Water Pearl -A variety of pearl produced several types of fresh water moll uses.

Gallery - A strip of metal that is pierced with a continuing pattern often framing vertical lozenge- shaped openings within an upper and lower band.

Gem - A gemstone, pearl or organic or non organic substance that has intrinsic rare based on its rarity, quality, size, durability and beauty.

Gemstone - Any mineral that is composed of crystallized matter and the atoms of which are regularly arranged throughout the structure, this including the approximately 100 principal mineral species used in Jewllery, e.g.:- all precious stones and also other stones formerly referred to as semi- precious stone and also other which is non-crystalline, but excluding all types of glass & plastics.

Gemology -Internationally, the science of gemstone is most commonly referred to as gemology.

Gilding -The process to overlaying or covering any metal or wood.

Girdle - The thin band that forms the widest circumference of a brilliant and that separates the crown above it from the pavilion below.

Girdle Facet - One of the facets that extend along the girdle of a faceted Gemstone.

Gold -more detail…

Gold-Plated –The process to plating a lower price metal’s ornaments by using gold.

Gold Nugget -A lump of native gold in the form of a water-worn mass washed from the rock –bed and deposited in a river or stream, usually weighing from 20 grams to so kilograms.

Golconda – Diamond mine from India, which gives many historical, unique & famous Diamonds to the world. more detail…

Goyam –Leading Indian Institute, which gives complete knowledge of Jewellery field, like Diamond Grading, Diamond Valuation, Jewellery Valuation, Jewellery Designing (Manual & Computer 2D/3D), Jewellery manufacturing, Export Management and almost all the aspects of diamond & jewellery field. Also gives quality certificates for loose & studded diamonds.

Grading –Classifying polished diamonds according to 4‘C’s.

Grading Report –Report issued by any neutral organization which contains all the details of a diamond like cut, colour, clarity, size etc.

Grain - A unit of weight for pearls, equal to ¼ of a carat.

Graphite - Graphite is a black, smooth object with shining surface. It is used in pencils in machines as a lubricating agent.

Great Mogul Diamond -A famous diamond that is said to have been found in the Kollur Mine near Golconda, southern India, in 1650or earlier, and presented to Shah Jehan , the Great mogul, emperor of India.

Great Southern Cross - A group of large pearls naturally joined together in the form of a cross. It has been suggested that originally there were 8 and that the ninth has been attached to make the group symmetrical. It is rare to find a large group symmetrical. It is rare to find a large group.

Grinding - The technique of cutting a diamond or other gems so as to give it final shape after Bruiting and the desired facets. more detail…

Hair Ornament - Any of various types of ornaments worn in the hair by man and woman of the western and eastern world.

Hallmark - The mark tamped on articles of gold or silver to attest the purity of the metal in compliance with legally established standards and other relevant data.

Hardness - The power of a gem stone, mineral, glass or other hard object to resist being abraded.

Heart cut – more detail…

Heat Treatment -The process of changing or eliminating the color of a natural gemstone or a synthetic stone by the application of controlled heat due to a rearrangement of the atoms of the tinctorial agent.

Hoop - The band of a finger ring that encircles the finger .also called the “shank”.

Hoop Earring - A type of earring in the form of a curved wire or band that extends somewhat like a hoop below the lobe and from which was suspended some type of pan dent.

Hope Diamond - A famous diamond, named after lord Henry Philip hope, that is of rare deep –blue color, cushion- shaped and of mixed cut and weighing 45.52 carats.

Hope Pearl - The largest known pearl of modern times.

Idol’s Eye Diamond - A diamond found at the Golconda mine in India, c.1600, so named as it is said to have been set in the idol’s eye in an Indian temple. It is pear- shaped and of affine blue white color, weighing 70.20 carats.

Imitation Gemstone - An artificial stone that is man –made to imitate , often by its color, the appearance of a natural gemstone , but having wholly different physical characteristics as well as different chemical composition, and hence also distinct from a synthetic gemstone .

Imitation or Artificial Pearl - An Artificial man- made imitation (produced by several methods) of a natural pearl or of a cultured pearl.

Imperial Diamond - A large south African diamond that is said possibly to have been smuggled into London from cape town in 1884 .

Indian Jewellery -Articles of Jewellery made in India, known from recorded example from as early as c.2500 B.C. and from find at Taxila from the 5th century showing Hellenistic and Parthian influence.

Jadau Ornaments –One of the world famous Indian style traditional ornament, mainly comes from Jaipur, Rajasthan state, India, made from gold, uncut diamonds and cabochon cut stones.

Jaipur Jewellery -Articles of Jewellery made in Jaipur, State Rajasthan - India. The articles are made of gold and include flexible collars, necklaces composed of many suspended pan dents, brooches with a suspended pan dent and enameled bangles. The ornaments are usually decorate in the front with uncut diamonds with gemstones and on the back are traditionally decorated with floral designs in different colored enamel.

Jewel -Every individual ornamental piece is a jewel. Generally jewel refers to a piece of Jewellery containing one as more gems let in precious metal, sometimes, it can also refer to cut, unset gemstone.

Jewellery – Any decorative article, including diamonds, gems, organic materials, enamel etc… or excluding, which is made of metal. This is made for personal adornment, to decorate human body.

Jewellery Polishing –Process of removing dirt from an ornament and smoothening the surface.

Karat – Karat is measuring unit of purity, which used for precious metals mainly for Gold. The word Karat is derived from the seed of Abyssinian coral tree which is said to be the original karat weight of jewellers. 100% pure gold is called 24 karat fine gold. When gold alloying with other metals, gold purity will decreases to 22, 18, 16, 14 karat etc…

Koh-I-Noor – (Koh-I-Nur or Kohinoor) Diamond -One of the worlds most famous (although not the largest or finest) Diamonds, weighing-186 carats until re-cut in 1852 to its present weight of 108.93carats. according to Indian legend, its origin dates back some 5000 years to ancient India and its early history , prior to recent research , was the subject to conflicting writings. Formerly it was generally accepted that it was the same diamond that had been in the possession of sultan Babar (1480-1530), founder of the Mughal empire in India (having been taken in 1304 from Al-in- din, Rajah of Malwi-1288-1321), and then known as Baber’s Diamond ‘, and that was inherited by his son ,Humayun and later given, c.1544, to Shah Jehan , Mughal emperor of India-1627-58.

Kundan Jewellery – Oneof the world famous, oldest Indian styles Jewellery made from 24 karat pure gold, uncut diamonds & cabochon cut gem-stones.

Lapidary – The art of gem-stone cutting is called lapidary work & the cutter is known as lapidary.

Luster -The appearance of the smooth surface of a mineral or some other substances due to the reflection which results from light striking the surface.

Mabe Pearl - An early type of cultured pearl, produced C.1896 by Kakichi Mikimoto.

Mark- Generally the identifying mark of the maker of an article of jewellery comparable to the makers marks on ceramic ware and the decorators mark on some glassware. Among the narrow engraved on some Greek and Roman engraved gemstones are Aulos, Doskorides, Gnaios, Aolon, Sostratos, and Tryphon.

Marquise Cut - more detail…

Marquise ring - Atype of finger ring that has a vertical elliptical bezel pointed at both ends and is set with (1) a large gemstone or paste sometimes with a surround of small diamonds.(2) a cluster of diamonds seed pearls or small gemstones or (3) a cameo or a jasper medallion made by Wedgwood.

Marquise rose cut- A style of cutting a diamond or gemstone in a modification of the rose cut so that the stone is elliptical and pointed at both ends but having a flat base and no TABLE. It is cut generally similar to the PENDELOQUE ROSE CUT with usually 4 or 6 horizontal rows of triangular facets, totaling 24 or 30 facets.

Marquise setting - A style of setting for a finger ring that is elliptical in shape but pointed at both ends.

Mineral -A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid constituent of the earth’s crust.

Metallurgy –Metallurgy is a science of metallic elements.

Mineralogy -Mineralogy is the science of minerals.

Mixed cut - The style of cutting a diamond with two different cuts e.g. the crown being brilliant cut and the pavilion being step cut or sometimes vice versa. The depth of the two parts is not fixed so the can be cut deeper pr shallower to enhance the colour.

Mohs’ scale- A scale for measuring the Hardness of a specimen of mineral or other hard substance prepared in 1812 by the Austrian mineralogist Friedrich Mohs (1773-1839) being a series of ten specified minerals in the order of their relative hardness – the intervals between the listed minerals not being equal or proportionate – against which the specimen is rated .The minerals on the scale are: (1) Talc; (2)Gypsum; (3) Calcite;(4) Fluorspar; (5) Apatite, (6) Orthoclase(Feldspar), (7) Quartz, (8) Topaz, (9) Sapphire, (10) Diamond. Intermediate measurements are indicated by fractions. All the important gemstones have a hardness of at least 5, but pearl and coral are lower.

Moisonite – Man made Diamond by using the H.P.H.T. process in laboratory.

Mosquito agate - A variety of agate that has black red brown or green moss-like or dendritic markings due to the inclusions of various other minerals projecting from the outer skin into the main mass sometimes producing a ‘scenic agate’ .Also called “Mocha Stone”.

Mounting - The metal framework in which gemstones are set to make various articles of jewellery.

Mughal jewellery - Articles of Indian jewellery made from the beginning of the Mughal Empire in 1526 until its gradual disintegration after Aurangzeb (1658-1707) and thereafter for sometime during the period of British control. The characteristic features are the extravagant use of the abundant local gemstone and strings of some pearls the use of many pendent ornaments and tassels and the decorative in polychrome enamel.

Nickel – more detail…

Nizam Jewllery -Reputed to be one of the world’s most magnificent collections of Jewellery, owned by Nizam of Hyderabad (1977), India. Notable interest in this collection is the 35- carat alexandrite and diamond ring set in the European style.

Organic Gems – ornamental materials produced by biological processes, whether animal or vegetable, come under the heading of “Organic Gems”. Pearl, Coral, Ivory & Amber are organic gem materials.

Oval Cut –more detail…

Palladium – more detail…

Pavilion –Lower part of a polished diamond.

Pear Cut – more detail…

Petrology –Petrology is the science of origin, history, occurrence, structure, chemical composition classification of rocks,

Platinum –more detail…

Pointer –Diamonds smaller then 1 Carat size.

Post –The back part of ear ornaments like Studs, Tops, Earrings, Danglers etc… to wear in ear.

Princess Cut –more detail…

Rhodium –more detail…

Rhodium Plating – A process to plat gold or other metal ornaments for giving a rich whites look by using Rhodium.

Rock -With regard to gems, a rock is a natural aggregate of two or more minerals. Lapis Lazuli is an example of a gem that is classified as a rock.

Rough diamond – Irregular natural shaped diamonds before cut & polished.

Round Brilliant Cut (R.B.C.) – more detail…

Sawing – more detail…

Silver – more detail…

Step Cut – This cutting style used in beget, taper and emerald shapes.

Stud –One kind of ear ornament, which is made by single stone or diamond.

Symmetry –more detail…

Synthesis -Short term for a synthetic stones.

Synthetic Diamondmore detail…

Table –A large, flat - hexagon shaped top facet of brilliant or step cut gemstones.

Taper more detail…

Tumbling– Gem-rocks taken from earth are as a raw-material with sharp edges. And after then the gems are rotated inside a barrel with a selection of harder grits, until all the rough edges have been removed. This process is known as Tumbling.

White Gold – An alloy of gold and other metal which is of silver colour.