‘The word "jewelry" is derived from the Latin word ‘jocale,’ meaning "plaything," and the word jewel, which was anglicized during the 13th century from the Old French word "jouel." The word "jewelry" (spelled jewellery in European English) is used to describe any piece of precious material (gemstones, noble metals, etc.) used to adorn one's self’.
As the earliest Indian history the art of jewellery, jewellery making & jewellery design is more than 10000 billion years old.And these things (jewellery) used to decorative human body on daily wear or on other occasion or any other purpose, are called Aabhushan, Alankar, Aabharan or Daagina.
Nowadays however, ‘Jewellery as a form of personal adornment’ holds true but it being a precious is not essential. Jewellery in earlier times was made from any material, usually gemstones, precious metals like gold, silver, copper etc., beads or shells, some of these materials are even used today without a doubt and some of the materials that have been added in jewellery like platinum, sterling silver has increased its brilliance, but in this world of technology and rapid changing fashion these are not the only materials from which jewellery is being made. Jewellery nowadays is even made from cheap materials like plastic, acrylic, wood, stainless steel, etc. the purpose is to look appealing. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Jewellery may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns, or for its designer look.
The first jewellery that man ever wore is lost in the depth of pre-historical times and it is impossible to trace them. So, research hasn't yet showed if jewellery use preceded the use of clothes or the opposite. Jewellery in its most basic form has been used since the dawn of man, in conjunction with the earliest-know use of both clothing, and tools.
Until recently, researchers had believed that the ability to use/appreciate symbolism did not develop until humans had migrated to the continent of Europe some 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, but it now appears as though the spark of creativity was ignited far earlier than previously believed. The first gemstones were probably "gathered" in much the same manner as was food. It is likely that gems were found inadvertently at first, maybe while searching for food by picking through gem-bearing alluvial gravels in a dry river-bead. What must these primitive humans have thought of these dazzling, yet seemingly useless objects — harder than any other naturally-occurring material, and capturing and possessing the warmth of fire, the brilliance of the sun, or the blueness of the sea and sky. Jewellery was used by early man has been made out of almost every natural material known to mankind.
Before written language, or the spoken word, there was jewellery. In the late 1800s, British archaeologist Archibald Campbell Carlyle said of primitive man "the first spiritual want of a barbarous man is decoration”. More than just a trinket from the past, jewellery, like art, is a window into the soul of humanity, and a poignant reminder of that which separates humankind from the animal kingdom — a desire to capture the essence of beauty, to possess its secrets, and to unlock its mysteries.
History of Jewellery
The history of jewellery is a long one, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.
As Indian earliest history; when the country called Hindustan - before Chakravarti Maharaja Bharat (As per Indian history the first Emperor of the world, who become Emperor before more than 10000 billion years ago. And Chakravarti means the Emperor of the whole world.) the Indians well known with the art of Metal working, Stone cutting, Stone setting, Filigree work, Minakari (Enamelling), Kundan work, Embossing & other art of jewellery. Not only have this art of Metal working, but they well known with Jewellery Designing. By metal working and the art of jewellery designing they made many types of ornaments like Crowns, Rani-Haar (long necklace), Hansali or Hansdi (circular neck ornament), Kanthi, Magmala (neck ornament with small gold balls), Necklaces, Tanmaniya (Mangalsutra), Pendants, Earrings, Tops, Karnaful (a type of neck ornament), Zumar, Suraliya, Thumb rings, Finger rings, Binchhua (a type of finger ornament), Toe rings, Bangles, Bracelets, Kadas, Kadandias, Chuda, Pachheli, Hathful, Punchiya, Armlets, Armbands, Maag Tika, Borlas, Dots, Chains, Nose pins, Nose-rings, Nath chains (worn with nose ring), Ear chains, Waist-belts, Anklets, Zanzar, Toda… there is no limitation of the jewellery they made. Not only jewellery but many ornaments pieces, architectural constructions prove that the art of that time is not comparable with any other culture. Earliest Indian gives all this knowledge to the world. . (more about Indian Jewellery...) (Link to Indian Jewellery page)
The people in foreign countries had no idea about the art of jewellery, Jewellery Designing and metal working techniques like Hindustan (India). The first jewellery was made by them from readily available natural materials including animal teeth, bone, nuts, peculiar rocks; fruit stonesvarious types of shells, carved stone and wood. It is believed that jewellery started out as a functional item used to fasten articles of clothing together, and was later adapted for use as an object for purely aesthetic ornamentation, or for use as a spiritual and religious symbol.
Prolific jewellery making began with the ancestors of Homo sapiens. Over 40,000 years ago the Cro-Magnons began to migrate from the cradle of civilization in central Africa to the Middle East, the Indus Valley, and to the continent of Europe. As these early humans travelled the land they collected objects of curiosity, fashioning them into jewellery which would tell the story of their journey.
The Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere since the time of Chakravarti Maharaja Bharat (As per Indian history the first Emperor of the world, who becomes Emperor before more than 10000 billion years ago). While Western traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms from the time of human being. (more about Indian Jewellery...) (Link to Indian Jewellery page)
The first signs of jewellery came from the people in Africa. Perforated beads made from snail shells have been found dating to 75,000 years ago at Blombos Cave. In Kenya, at EnkapuneYa Muto, beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40,000 years ago.
Outside of Africa, the Cro-Magnons had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth, berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces. In southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found.
The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000-5,000 years ago. The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. Predynastic Egypt had Jewellery in Egypt soon began to symbolize power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods. (more about Egyptian Jewellery...) (Link to Egyptian Jewellery page)
By approximately 4,000 years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Sumer and Akkad. The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, where hundreds of burials dating 2900–2300 BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artifacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins. In Assyria, men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets, ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals.
Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artifact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone, and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilized wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume.
The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. A fascinating example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghani lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings.
Uses of Jewellery
The psychological reasons which led to the use of jewellery the very first time is unknown whether it was to attract the opposite sex, the desire to be more beautiful or the need to be protected with the help of talismans. Indeed, it has been proved that jewellery was used to attract good powers or to turn away the bad.
Jewellery over the period of time has been used for a number of reasons, like:
Symbolism to show membership or status:
Women’s adore about Jewellery as it symbolizes an icon of femaleness and even social status. Jewellery has always made women feel beautiful and confident. The jewellery items are made of diamonds, pearl, gold, silver or other precious gem stones, the importance of Jewellery has always subsided in its ability to add to a women’s natural beauty.
Beauty is always subjected to be admired. A glimpse at the past reveals that it was the Jewellery that had been blistering this inner beauty by adorning the neck, forehead, ears, hands, waists and feet of both the genders. It is even today that young to middle aged women are crazy about Jewellery. Skilful hands mould precious metals to create magnificent collections of necklaces, earrings, bracelets and even fashion Jewellery. When these creatively curved metals find the right place on a woman’s naturally curved figure, they get their due respect and the woman glows with a change in her body language.
Jewellery is in high demand for almost every occasion. Everywhere you look you see people of all ages wearing watches, earrings, bracelets, etc. Though the trend of men adoring themselves has now faded away, many of them still use few ornaments. However, it is the women for whom jewellery holds utmost significance. The youngest children are even being adorned with little rings and necklaces. Women have been using jewellery for beautification since centuries. The importance of jewellery is evident from the fact that on many auspicious occasions, jewellery forms a part of gifts. Jewellery forms the important part of adoration among women. To accentuate their feminine beauty, they use jewellery made of gold, silver and diamonds. Traditionally, jewellery has always been linked with wealth, power and status.
Society in general has the tendency to put a great deal of focus on what people wear. Magazines, television, and movies highlight accessories as ‘must have’ items. Sometimes people are convinced the more accessories you have, the more popular you are. Maybe this is why some people are very attached to any type of body ornament. They show emotional attachment by displaying the sparkling ring on their finger once they have become engaged, showing off the locket around their neck, or passing down a watch received from someone important to the next generation. It is amazing to imagine how imperative these ornaments must be for them to be kept for so many years. It does appear that everyone will have a new reason for being so fond of their jewellery. Accessories will probably stay very important to people until the end of time. There will always be some kind of occasion to look for that next piece. There is nothing like being able to describe that special memory of when you received a great piece of jewellery to someone else!
Some jewellery throughout the ages may have specifically been as an indication of a social group. More exotic jewellery is often for wealthier people, with its rarity increasing its value.. Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, for instance, only certain ranks could wear rings. Later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery, again based on rank. Due to its personal nature and its indication of social class, some cultures established traditions of burying the dead with their jewellery
Jewellery can also be symbolic of group membership, as in the case of the Christian crucifix or Jewish Star of David, or of status, as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of married people wearing a wedding ring.
Currency, wealth display and storage: Most cultures have at some point had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures move wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or create jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been considered for the purpose security in times of contingency. This is because it is often expensive and can be sold whenever there is dire need of money. This way, jewellery also serves the purpose of insurance, which can be depended upon. Talking about the significance of jewellery in the life of women, they are gifted jewellery in different phases of life such as, at birth, at coming of age, in marriage, on becoming a mother, etc. Certain ornaments, such as mangalsutra, nose ring and toe rings, quintessential for married women. From the practice of generations, these gifts are still continuing without any abruption. Jewellery gifted to women at the time of her marriage is symbol of wealth, power and femininity.
Functional use: Many items of jewellery, such as brooches, buckles pins and clasps, originated as purely functional items, such as holding a an attire together or keeping hair in place but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.
Gift for someone:Jewellery is an admirable gift idea as it says volumes about your emotions. A woman is undividable from Jewellery. There is hardly any woman who can deny the attraction of the glittering Jewellery. So, excellent pieces of fashion Jewellery bought from the most reliable source can fulfil her desires and make them smile.
Protection: Wearing of amulets and devotional medals and talismans to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures; these may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals, body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylized versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art).
Artistic display:Jewellery was used by early man to adorn nearly every part of the human body, although artistic display has clearly been a function of jewellery from the very beginning, the other roles described above tended to take primacy but nowadays jewellery is used primarily as personal adornment.
Body Modification: Jewellery used in body modification is usually plain. Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. A woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves too. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach 10-15 inches long. To tourist curiosity Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.
For all above uses of jewellery, so many types of ornaments have been made for different body parts. All the body parts from hair to toe are decorated with different type of ornaments. Different type of techniques used to make all these ornaments like Hairpin, hair-buckle, hair-brooch, crown, tiara, coronet, diadem, necklines, Neck-chain, choker necklace, Rani-haar necklace, pendants, tanmaniya, tops, brooch, ear cuff, earrings, ear-pin, ear-chain, hoop, danglers, full ear, ear-pin, nose-ring, nose-pin, nose-hoop, nath chain, armlet, bracelet, bancle, kada, pachheli, kadandia, poncha, finger ring, thumb ring, spiral ring, engagement ring, cufflink, buttons, tiepin, waist belt, breastplates, anklets, toe-ring, amulets, prayer beads, medical alert jewellery, body piercing jewellery and many other like these.
The idea of gold nuggets is to some extent a myth they do exist nuggets weighing upto160 lb have been recorded – but this is the exception rather than the rule for the most part gold has to be extracted laboriously in tiny quantities form metal bearing quartz or by the collection of Alluvial gold washed into river beds from the mother code by centuries of erosion. Tons of quartz has to be crushed or sand rifted to yield no more than a handful of gold speaks. The process annealing must have been the first major technical discovery to be made by the goldsmiths of the Ancient world.
Forging utilises the malleable quality of metal which allows it to be hammered into various shapes. One of the advantages of this technique is the spring tension created by the hardening of the metal. Such tension can be used to spring a forged bracelet together or to hold earrings or a necklace in place, thus eliminating the need for catches or clasps. Forging can be used to form many hollow shapes not only for jewellery but for hollowware as well, which includes teapots, bowls, spoons and plates.
The range of objects which could be made from a single sheet of metal was considerable, but there a time arrived when two or more pieces of metal had to be joined together. Before, soldering could be achieved satisfactorily; the problem of oxidation had to be overcome and through there is no mention of the substance in any ancient writings. We can only presume that they used some form of flux. When gold is approaching melting point develops a skin of oxide which interferes with the flow and adhesion of the solder. The surface is to be soldered therefore must be coated with the flux, which acts as a barrier from the air, not only preventing oxidation, but also guiding the solder into the joint since this is the only area which will readily receive it. What material was used in the ancient world is impossible to say but it must have similar properties to borax, which is used by contemporary craftsman.
Stamping marks the introduction of the concept of mass production to the world of jewellery. This technique appears to have evolved almost simultaneously with that of repose despite the considerably advanced degree of technical skill required for tool making. Some craftsman preferred to work in reverse in which case the design would be carved in reverse on the face of a bronze tool, the gold sheet laid on top covered by a thick sheet of lead and the design hammered out. This was in fact a primitive form of the die stamping widely used today.
Filigree and Granulation:
Soon after they had discovered the art of soldering, goldsmiths started to decorate the surface of their work with patterns of wire and granules. The production of wire for filigree work without machinery must have presented ancient craftsman with a lot of problems. There are various theories about the method of production, but it is generally agreed that the first step was to cut narrow strips of gold from a sheet with a chisel.
However, it was produced the existence of wire offered enormous scope for decorative patterns with a simple pair of bronze tweezers, the craftsmen could produce spirals, loops and wavy lines which could be soldered onto the face of the work. Two or more wires could be twisted together, which in twin became more complex designs. To add variety to this filigree work designers incorporated domes or spheres. These were originally quite large and produced as hollow domes punched out of this gold sheet and trimmed to size but as work became more complex and the component parts smaller. This method proved too time consuming, so solid spheres were used instead. This was the start of granulation, the most amazing of all the technical achievements of the craftsmen of the Ancient world. Granulation was in use in the 3rd millennium BC, but the granules used were large and the work comparatively crude. It was the Etruscans in the period 700 – 600 BC, who perfected the technique and produced work which puzzled craftsmen and metallurgists for centuries. So minute were the granules used some measuring less than 1/200th of an inch, that they look more like matt bloom on the work than a collection of granules.
This is a method with which the artist chooses from a number of various sharpened tools, all with a different shape at the end and by hammering the end of each tool gently, applies a force on the silver surface in order to create the desired decoration and representation of saints or other designs. This method is primarily used for Byzantine style icons and Ecclesiastic instruments.
One of the earliest and most popular methods used to incorporate stones was inlay. The first thing required of the setting was that it should hold the stone firmly in position and the second that it should protect it from knocks and abrasion.
Another popular substitute, developed in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom was frit, the earliest known form of glass. It was similar in composition to modern glass but with a slightly lower proportion of silica and lime. Much of the frit produced is opaque and would suggest that is raison diameter was a gemstone substitute rather than an entity itself.
The earliest enamelling technique known as Cloisonné enamel was identical to inlay but used molten glass rather than individually cut stones. Then the Champleve technique was developed in which the design was cut into the surface of the metal and the recesses filled with molten glass.
Later more sophisticated techniques were used allowing continuous tone pictorial decoration unpacked stained glass effects and polychromatic decoration in three dimensions or relief.
This is a unique and recent technique for forming jewellery, is the art of building metal forms, by electro-deposition, on a base of medium. The medium can be metal or an unorthodox material such as wood, lac, paper, tinfoil, wax or polystyrene. These materials can be left inside the newly electroformed piece, or they can be burned or malted out, leaving an extremely lightweight piece of jewellery. This technique has unlimited possibilities for the invention of jewellery forms previously impracticable by traditional methods. Many soft materials such as coal and porcelain, which break easily and have been nearly impossible to mount, can now be set by electroforming.
Ancient world of jewellery:
When discussing the history of jewellery we are continuously handicapped by the lack of specimens available. Without the discoveries of late 19th& 20th archaeologists, such discussion could be no more than speculation. The intrinsic value of gold and the changing fashion have been the worst names of the jewellery historian. Gold melts easily cannot be identified is conveniently transportable and an international currency.
The 13th & 14th Century:
Throughout the early middle ages royal and religious patronage became increasingly exclusive and this was a situation which was consolidated towards the end of the 13th century. When a law was passed in France forbidding commoners to wear precious stones, pearls & belts otherwise circlets of gold & silver. For the first time in Western Europe, jewellery became an official privilege of the privileged.
The 13th and early 14th centuries were the years of great Royal Jewels and in particular great crowns and coronets. Royal inventories form one of the best sources of information as to the forms of jewellery work throughout the Middle Ages. A list of jewels belonging to Blanche of Castle in the early 13th century included several crowns set with rubies, emeralds, sapphires and pearls. Broaches set with rubies, sapphires, emeralds and other precious stones. One of the most beautiful crowns of the 13th century was that worn by Richard, rare of Cornwall, at his coronation as King of the Romans.
The 15th Century:
By the first decade of the 15th century, the Dukedom of Burgundy had become enormously wealthy and Philip the good was to emerge as the greatest patron of the jewellers art in the Middle Ages. Stones and precious metals were imported in even greater quantities and the workshops of the Rhine experienced a new freedom which had a profound effect on the jewels produced until the end of the Middle Ages. The Gothic architectural style continued to influence all branches of the arts and the effect on the form of jewels is even more obvious than it had been in the previous century. The finest single piece from this period is the crown of Princess Blanche which was worn by her at the age of ten, when she was formally married to the Elector Ledwig III in 1402. The pinnacles are set with emeralds, sapphires, diamonds, pearls and rubies, some facet cut others in cabochon human had been wearing smaller versions of male crown for several centuries but Princess Blanches crown has a delicacy which suggests that it was designed specifically with a young girl in mind.
Towards the end of the century, it is the transitional period between the gothic and renaissance fashionable clothes became tighter and items of supplemented with precious stones.
The 16th Century:
Renaissance is a word frequently used without any real knowledge of the period it covers. In recent years it has become fashionable to play down the prestige of this particular rebirth and write it off as the culmination of the artistic traditions of the Middle Ages combined with foretaste of the baroque magnificence to come of the 17th Century. More than a thousand years had elapsed since the collapse of the Roman Empire and it is not surprising that the Italians looked back with longing at the magnificence of their past surrounded as they were with tangible evidence great architecture, engineering, philosophy & art.
The early jewellery of the Renaissance therefore was influenced more by the new sculpture and painting than by its classical origins. This influence is understandable as the jewellers workshop was considered to be the first training ground for those wishing to progress to the major arts. The greatest of these was produced by Virgil Solis, an engraver, containing page after page of designs for all types of jewellery, were widely circulated and adopted by lesser craftsmen throughout Western Europe, and included designs for belt-buckles, chains & pendants. One of these pendants is a prototype for a design which became widely popular throughout the high Renaissance. It is pear shaped with two large Cabochon stones set in raised claw settings, with two figures setting on the lower stone and supporting the upper below the pendant are suspended three baroque pearls, a feature which is common to many late 16th Century pendants. Other pendants designed by Solis have a religious overtone being formed as crosses set with Cabochon Stones with foliage and tiny cherubs.
The 17th Century:
Like so many of the terms chosen to describe a period of art history baroque was originally a term of disagreement. The term was introduced by critics of the 18th Century to describe the art and architecture of the 17th Century which they considered to be vulgar &self-indulgent. The whole of Western Europe was racked with war and political upheaval for the first half of the century. The thirty years had the continent of Europe in turmoil and the civil war raged in England from 1642 to 1646. It is understandable therefore that the amount of jewellery produced was considerably limited both for the impoverished royal houses and the private sector. The other major influence was the introduction of facet cut stones. Cardinal Mazarin, a senior minister at the Court of Louis XIV sponsored a number of Lapidaries to develop the rose cut, emeralds, topaz and sapphires were all popular but it was diamonds that really caught the patrons imagination.
The 18th Century:
If there was ever a century of change & contrast, it was the 18th Century at the outset there was as great division between the rich & poor as had ever been experienced by the end. The great industrial revolution had led to the emergence of a new middle class. Diamonds proved their worth and were used to the almost total exclusion of other stones until the 1750’s. At the turn of the 17th Century the brilliant cut had made even more capital from the diamonds remarkable optical qualities than the Mazarin cut. For this the stone was cut with 57 facets instead of the 16 of the Mazarin and exploited the reflective & refractive properties of diamonds to a far greater extent than ever before. The increased brilliance was considerable and the cut has never been bettered to this day. So far the first time, different jewellery was designed for wear during the day and night time. During the second half of the century, open back settings were introduced to allow more light into the stones. Again the pave setting was favoured for smaller stones.
Symmetrical floral designs and the bow theme continued to be popular until about 1740 when the rococo fashion temporarily favoured the asymmetrical and reintroduced the love of colour. One particularly fine brooch made in Spain about 1770 depicts a spray of flowers. The interpretation is much more naturalistic and fluid leaves and items are enamelled and held at the base with an enamelled gold bow pave set with diamonds and the petals of each flower are also set with small diamonds. This piece has both realism and a charming elegance which typifies the influence from the major arts of an influence soon to be curtailed by a renamed interest in classicism.
Cut Steel Jewellery:The very word steel smacks of the Industrial Revolution and indeed cut steel jewellery, which started early in the 18th Century, survived for more than 150 years unlike pinchbeck it substituted for both stones and metal. Perhaps the inspiration came from the vogue for marc sites which were being widely used as a substitute for diamonds. Steel workers traditionally producing swords and boxes realized that steel cut in facets could achieve the same metallic gleam. Steel jewellery became fashionable in France and a shop opened in Paris by Monsieur Granchez Marie Antoinette’s jeweller was reported in 1760 to have been selling steel jewellery which was made expensive than gold.
As in precious jewellery the floral theme remained dominant throughout the century and even the rococo asymmetry was adopted by the steel cutters when it became fashionable.
The 20th Century:
During the last decade of the 19th Century, the craze for Art. Now we are was supplemented by 18th Century style diamond jewellery produced by the great jewel houses of the west. By 1910 their scope was considerable widened by the use of platinum which rapidly replaced silver for diamond setting. Unlike silver, the new metal did not tarnish and because of its greater strength reduced the amount of metal required to hold a stone securely. Stones, ribbons and bows were favoured themes for this Edwardian Diamond Jewellery which for the first time was designed specifically for day time wear and under electric light which was now an automatic requirement for those who might afford such jewels. Pure geometric jewels were now produced, simple studied compositions of squares, oblongs and circles.
Semi-precious and non-precious materials were introduced whose value to the jeweller was not commercial but their ability to provide the controls needed to complete compositions. Pave-set diamonds were arranged in geometric patterns in onyx or black enamel and laid alongside poised slabs of Platinum or Gold.
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Step 5 - Identify Your Customers
Step 6 - Identify your Products
Step 7 - Competition, Supply & Demand
Step 8 - Pricing Strategies
Section 2 - Business Operations and Legal Issues
Step 9 - Maintaining Records
Step 10 - Identifying Start-up Costs
Step 11 - Planning to Pay Yourself
Step 12 - Projecting your Income
Step 13 - Business Legal Structure
Step 14 - Business Name
Step 15 - Handling Taxes
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Step 18 - Credit Card Processing
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Step 24 - Recruiting Party Hosts with Incentives
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Step 31 - Growing your Business
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