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Indian Jewellery

  • History
  • Variety of jewellery in Sanskrit Literature
  • Jewellery & Sanskar (Religious Rules)
  • Antique Jewellery
  • Beaded Jewellery
  • Customized Jewellery
  • Copper Jewellery
  • Costume Jewellery
  • Diamond Jewellery
  • Filigree work & Ras-Ravaa Jewellery
  • Fusion Jewellery
  • Hollow Ornaments
  • Ivory Jewellery
  • Jadau Jewelry or Kundan Jewellery
  • Lac (Lakh) Jewellery
  • Meenakari or Enamelling Jewellery
  • Navratna Jewellery
  • Pachchikam Jewellery
  • Plane Gold Jewllery
  • Silver Jewellery
  • Sozo Jewellery
  • Stone Jewellery
  • Temple Jewellery
  • Thewa Jewellery
  • Tribal Jewellery
  • Ratna-Shastra & Ratna-Pariksha

'Indian Jewellery' - two simple but heart touching words. When you think about, your minds races back in centuries. Eye capture ornamental history from passing billions of years will come in front of you. It is believed that Indian Jewellery craft is over billions of years old and over these years; it has evolved into an art - in terms of design and craftsmanship.

As Indian earliest history; when the country called Hindustan - before Chakravarti Maharaja Bharat (As per Indian history the first Emperor of the world, who become Emperor before more than 10000 billion years ago. And Chakravarti means the Emperor of the whole world.) the Indians well known with the art of Metal working, Stone cutting, Stone setting, Filigree work, Minakari (Enamelling), Kundan work, Embossing & other art of jewellery. Not only have this art of Metal working, but they well known with Jewellery Designing. By metal working and the art of jewellery designing they made many types of ornaments like Crowns, Rani-Haar (long necklace), Hansali or Hansdi (circular neck ornament), Kanthi, Magmala (neck ornament with small gold balls), Necklaces, Tanmaniya (Mangalsutra), Pendants, Earrings, Tops, Karnaful (a type of neck ornament), Zumar, Suraliya, Thumb rings, Finger rings, Binchhua (a type of finger ornament), Toe rings, Bangles, Bracelets, Kadas, Kadandias, Chuda, Pachheli, Hathful, Punchiya, Armlets, Armbands, Maag Tika, Borlas, Dots, Chains, Nose pins, Nose-rings, Nath chains (worn with nose ring), Ear chains, Waist-belts, Anklets, Zanzar, Toda… there is no limitation of the jewellery they made. Not only jewellery but many ornaments pieces, architectural constructions prove that the art of that time is not comparable with any other culture. Earliest Indian gives all this knowledge to the world.

India has always been a land of gems and a variety of precious stones. The test for colour in jewellery had its greatest manifestation in the lands of Hindustan and among the civilization of the Hindus. Large quantity of a wide variety of precious and valuable stones abounds in Hindustan (India). Sculptures and paintings of men and women adorn with jewels testify to their use, as does recent work which in quality and test points to the inheritance of a very ancient tradition. To the rich variety of stones was added the widespread use of pearls and of enamels and vitreous pastes, which were very popular in jewellery in India.

Adorning the hair, feet, ankles and every part of the woman's body, Jewellery occupies a prominent place in every woman's mind. And for the Indian woman - jewellery always was, still is, and will continue to be her innermost desire - a most intimate reflection of her grace and beauty.

Many Indian historical places of that time have proved that India has the greatest art of metalworking, lapidary, jewellery designing, architecture and all types of work related to art. The art of the time is amazing and worldwide famous.

In Harappa, one of the most ancient centers of the Hindu civilization, ornament was found are mostly made from red cornelian. In 4th & 5th Century AD the paintings of Ajanta show men & women wearing more jewels than clothes. In India the size & complexity of earrings, bracelets, armbands, belts, head dresses, leg bracelets and rings, which adorn these masterpieces of pictorial art, reflect the fantastic splendor.

According with the changes in centuries, a vast variety of designs & different types has been emerged with a specific purpose. Today, women will not wear ten pieces of jewellery on her head. At other times they were less bulky but still richly adorned with clusters of pearls or colored stones some were half moon shaped and minutely decorated with bezels and pendants. Armlets & Bracelets could be made of light metalwork or tabular hoops or jeweled bands. This similar type of ornament was also worn on the foot. The number and variety of belts was comparative with necklaces. The Hindu women of Rajasthan were up to ten jeweled anklets one on top of the other, each with a specific denomination rings were often more on the toes.

Indian Jewellery is characterized by some of the finest handwork and symbolizes the painstaking efforts, the utmost care and the attention to detail in every piece that the workers create. The other facet of this jewellery is that it is custom-made and often created to match the original and individual persona of the woman.

VARITIES OF JEWELLERY IN SANSKRIT LITERATURE:

Almost all types of jewellery that is in existence today and many ancient types familiar to our forebears, are described in such detail and so vividly so as to present realistic picture to the mind's eye of the reader. There are superb descriptions of the adornments of the head, with the various fashionable styles of coiffure to which the ornamental pins, bands and other pieces of jewellery gave the finishing artistic touches. The illustrations, if any are needed, are provided in abundance by the sculptures and fresco of Ellora and Ajanta. There, one can see the ringlets, tresses, braids, chignons and buns which the modern women are trying to imitate.

Kalidas in his "Meghaduta" refers to "muktajala grathi tam alakani Kaminiva" or strings of pearls that rival the ringlets of hair on a woman's face. He again describes a river with golden flamingos afloat on it as resembling the golden ornaments adorning the plaited hair of the earth in the following words: "hemabhaktimatim bhumeeh prameniniwa pipria" Pushpapatta, Lyarnapatta and ratnapatta were bands of flowers in gold workmanship and jeweled ornamental strips that were meant to adorn the coiffure. The mukut or crown and the mauliman, a jewel for the turban, were additional piece- were also the chudamani and the chatul-tikamani, now known as the bindi covering the central parting of the hair or simanta.

The most impressive ornaments are usually made for being worn around the neck, in south Kalidas in his "Meghaduta" speaks of a strand of pearls with a central blue sapphire in these terms: "ekam muktagunam iva bhuva sthulamadhyanranilam". He also refer S to the muktyagnopavita or pearl agnopavita, similar to that sported by the female deities in the Ajanta sculptures.

The designs of ear ornaments are abundant. “Ban-bhatta” alludes to ear rings, “Trikantaka” and "Balika" in his Harsh-charita. The BaIika' is a cone-shaped tabular ear ring which is still in existence in Mangalore, in Mysore State. and is also to be found in the jewellery of the fisherwomen of the Konkan coast. Buddhagosha, in a Pali text refers to "valika" as strands of pearls dangling below the ear-lobes known as kankan or valay. A gem encrusted bangle is called 'ratnavalay'. Valayas were made of shell, metal pearls, ivory and rhinoceros horn. The 'jalavalaya, referred to by Hala was perforated bracelet of filigree work. 'Muktavalaya was a pearl bangle, Necklace with plaques interspersed, known as 'Phalakavalyas' were made to match these. The 'makaravakya'; which we see today in the shape of a bracelet with the heads of alligators as terminals were also prevalent in those times.

Anklet was usually named after its jingling sound. It was sometimes called “kshudrighantika” Jewellery thus reached the acme of its workmanship and was classified according to its use, design and medium.

JEWELLERY AND SANSKAR:

In India, uses of jewellery are not only for adornment or decorate a human body. Also some special reasons to adorn jewellery called “Sanskar” (religious rules); which effect in human body and also in whole life.

A Piece of jewellery is associated with each of the above mentioned sanskars: for instance, on the twelfth day after its birth, the child, at the 'Namakarana' (giving a name to the born baby) gets the first physical shock when the goldsmith bores his ears with a gold pin which he curls in a ring: at the same time, a soft thin black silk cord is tied around the child's waist and a similar cord with a pendant-tall or taviz of gold silver attached to it, is tied around the child's neck. This: pendant is regarded as a protective charm to ward off evil or counteract the evil eye. The pricking of his ears is believed to help the child resist nervous diseases like epilepsy as a result of the shock he receives when the tender lobes of his ears are pierced. At the 'Yagnopavit', the child is invested with a gold thread which is worn over the left shoulder and encircles the right side of the waist. This is later replaced by three strands of cotton cord. A 'pavitra' or sanctified, gold ring, designed like a reef- knot with granular ornamentation, is also given to the child for being worn on his ring finger. At the 'Samaartan', vermilion powder is applied to the forehead of the youth and a gold necklace is placed around his neck. For women, too there are several occasions when jewellery plays a significant role. Particular mention may be made of the marriage.

Vast varieties of jewellery:

In the world, jewellery known by culture or some religions; but in India every State in India has its own special style of crafting and these styles have been adapted by the Goldsmiths and Workers of that region.

Antique Jewelry
The jewelry which is not in ordinary manufacture and of which the mode of manufacturing is no longer popular which is known as 'Antique Jewelry.' Antique jewelry has dull and rough look. It takes you back to centuries, by its unfinished and dull looks. The jewelry pieces in antique jewelry usually belong to a particular period of history, when its popularity was at its peak.

In India, antique jewelry is available in so many forms like Meenakari, Kundan work, Silver, Gold, Filigree, Diamond work and so on. But, actual pieces of antique jewelry those are extremely rare and usually sold at auctions, in antique stores and antique shops. They include the jewelry that belongs to the early period of history. Because of rarity of antique jewelry that makes it so appealing to wear. However, at times, jewelry that is furnished in antique pattern is also given the name of antique jewelry.

Bead Jewelry

The art to make beaded jewellery in India is thousands year old. And it’s more popular in the time of Indus Valley Civilization. People of that civilization used to make beads out of gold, silver, copper, clay, ivory and even wood. The excavated carried out there came out with finished and unfinished beads from the site. After looking onto them, one gets amazed at the wonderful sense of bead work and jewelry at that time.

During Mughal era also, bead jewelry was in vogue. Bead necklaces of different size and shapes, made up of precious and semi-precious stones, were quite popular during that time. Later on, when Europeans came to India, the bead work became more transparent and semi-transparent. Europeans looked for better and refined as well as transparent bead work, which enabled the artisans to develop their art up to the optimum. This led to widening of the horizon of bead jewelry making.

The bead making part of making bead jewelry is extremely intricate and time consuming. As regards the procedure for the same, the material out of which beads are to be made is first chiseled to obtain a desired shape and size. Thereafter, a hole is drilled into the material, so that a string passes through it, facilitating the stringing of a number of beads together. This whole process is time consuming and asks for lots of patience. Indian craftsmen have familiar with the making of silver beads from billions of years.


Customized Jewelry

Custom made or customized jewelry is personalized jewellery, which is made or customized as per the demand of client. This happens particularly in cases where readymade jewelry does not match the taste of person. Custom jewelry gives total freedom to customer about the design, weight and budget. He/she can ask for various personal touches and get everything made as per his/her ideas. In fact, it gives sufficient space for personal choice and taste to customer, which is not available in case of readymade jewelry.

Custom made jewelry is in all those, who get their old jewellery melted for new one, with all freedom of personal choice in design and pattern. This gives a chance to customer to get his favorite design, gem, pattern and colour of metal onto the jewelry. This is the period of Customized jewelry or custom made jewellery is most popular these days in all occasions like daily wear, parties, marriage functions or picnics.

The popularity of custom made jewelry is increasing because of the fact that in it does the customer get specially crafted jewelry suitable to his needs and taste and also available in all type of jewellery like diamond jewellery, plane gold jewellery or Kundan or Jadau jewellery.

Copper Jewellery

Copper Jewellery Handcrafted from copper and brass the unique Creative Designs copper product range has been inspired by the sights and sounds of Ancient India. In buying these products, you are contributing to the continuation of one of India's most traditional art forms. These products are handcrafted by burnishing and heat-treating the metals to get the earthy colours, which make it so unique. We recommend that you polish it with a soft cloth and treat it with care and it will last forever. Copper was an important part of the Bronze Age. Copper alloyed with Tin makes Bronze. Brass, on the other hand, is Copper, alloyed with Zinc. Copper is thought to be strongly helpful to those suffering from arthritis.

Costume Jewelry

Costume jewelry is also called Fashion jewelry, mainly for the reason that it is not made of precious metals and stones, rather lighter and cheaper material are used. Costume jewelry is trend-conscious and keeps on changing as per changing needs. Mostly for teen age and also for those who are open to experimentation with new and unusual designs, shapes and colours. Costume jewelry offers many varieties of choices to clients. Rather than using precious ingredients, like gold, silver, platinum and white gold, fashion jewelry designers use cheap products, like jute, silk, thread, leather, wool, plastic, wood, bone, shall, stone, oxidized metal, horn, lac, terracotta, clay, beads, seeds etc.

This type of jewellery is widely available and is pretty, light-weight and cute look attract the persons to wear.

Diamond studded jewellery

This is most world-wide popular work of Diamonds & Gemstones. The master workers of this art are Bengali-workers, from West-Bengal, East India.

Filigree work& Ras-Ravaa Jewellery

The great work of small plain, twisted and formed very closely resemble lace, filigree is basically openwork design of an exquisitely entwined of fine silver, gold or other metal threads combined with different small flowers & other shapes with gold grains comes from Gujarat.Especially the jewellery comes from Gujarat is made on gold plates with the combined of different shapes called taar (plane wire), rava (small gold balls), veni (twisted wire), gajri. This type of jewellery is called jewellery of Ras-Rava.

Filigree work has variation according to the places too. While Orissa, where it is popularly known as 'Tarkashi', specializes in jewellery. In Orissa figures of animals, birds and flowers and Konark Chakra are the favorite mementos that are depicted on jewellery. Various products, such as pendant, necklaces, earrings, bangles, bracelets, finger rungs, brooches and hairpins are also adorned with filigree work.

Fusion Jewellery:

A human nature always needs something new, something different; but, also with the running trends. Fusion jewellery is a blending of traditional design with modern aesthetics. In the fusion jewellery one can find the combination of diamond with Kundan work, diamond with filigree work, diamond with gold designs or many other combinations look like this.

Hollow ornaments

The unbelievable art of gold work comes from Tamilnadu and Karnataka state mostly South India. These types of jewellery are looking like heavy weighted but actually light weighted ornaments.

Ivory Jewellery

The tusks of an elephant are called ivory, and the jewellery made from that is called Ivory Jewellery. Importance of ivory jewellry can be guessed from the fact that in Gujarat, the bride receives an ivory bangle called “Chuda” or “Chudamani” from her family just before marriage as jewellery. During marriage ceremony wearing of ivory bangles is must for bride in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and some other regions of India. Other than bangles, ivory pendant that is attached to a necklace or earring is quite popular in India.

Ivory is gem material and because of its softness it’s very easy to give desire shape or can carved into desired designs and patterns. It is light weight as well as its white color, which makes it extremely attractive to people. It is for these reasons it is popular among jewellers and customers. Ivory jewelry is not only popular in India, but the entire world.

'Jadau' Jewelry or Kundan Jewellery

Also called as 'Jadtar' or Kundan Jewellery - is embedded with precious stones and reveals the traditional art of Rajasthan and Gujarat. Jadau creations are usually studded with multi-coloured precious and semi-precious stones and are reminiscent of the old Mughal tradition of Jadau jewellery craft. The art of Kundan, combines enameling with uncut or rose cut diamonds and other precious stones encrusted on gold. Kundan Jadtar is a very special craft and not everybody's cup of tea. It requires exceptional skills, concentration and loads and loads of patience. And again, these skills and capabilities have to combine with hard work and aesthetic sense to create a master piece of art.

Whether it is Jadtar, Minakari or Kundan - each style of art imposes stringent process requirements and absolute concentration because of the intricacy involved. Owing to such painstaking efforts and time requirement to craft each piece, there are only a few master Karigars who have this finesse and expertise. Each piece is a unique creation and with quality, purity and care going into its making - it can take several weeks to craft and finish, but one glimpse at the final product and most customers forget the agony of their wait.

Lac Jewelry

Lac, Lak or Lakh is a one kind of wax material available in stick or in the form of plate. Because of its malleability it’s very easy to give it any shape. Lac jewelry, also known as lacquer jewelry is famous art of Rajasthan and now available and also popular popularity in allover India today. Lac jewelry is available in versatile designs, which add to its beauty. Among the various items in lac jewelry, the bangles need a special mention. Bangles made of Lac are of bright color and glass work done on them makes them more attractive. Rajasthani people believe that lac bangles bring good omen to those who wear them. It’s compulsory to wear Lac (by using in the back part of gold or silver bangle) or Lac bangles for all married women. They are very popular in Rajasthan and lately are being made in other parts of country too.

This prominent craft of Rajasthan was originally established by tribal people of the state. Once the craft of tribal people, lacquer jewelry is now a most popular fashion jewellery of urban India. The accessories made of lac attract everyone for obvious reasons. Some of the major accessories included in lac jewelry, like Bala, Bajuband, Rakhi, Jod, Gajra, Gokhru, Timaniya are extremely popular. A good chunk of the jewelry is exported to outside world, which in turn provides more employment and inspires improvisation in design and pattern of jewelry.

The making of lac jewelry is multifaceted; small glass pieces & beads, flower and other shaped mirrors and decorative spiral & plane wires are also used for the improvement of beauty of the jewelry. The artists of lac jewellery are also produce different show pieces and toys from lac, which is famous worldwide.

Minakari or Enamelling Jewellery

Enamelor Mina is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850°C. The powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal. Enamelling or Minakari is a decoration technique in which a powdered glass of certain composition is fused to the surrounding or under laying metal. The favor of adorning jewelry with bright & light colours has always existed.

This kind of traditional jewellery comes from north & west part of India. Minakari Jewellery is an exquisite combination of gems, enamel pigments and precious stones. This timeless craft and art was introduced to Rajasthan artisans by Raja Mansingh of Amer. He invited Lahore-based skilled artisans to his kingdom, and their intermingling with the locals craftsmen resulted in an amalgam, which came to be known as Meenakari. Minakari was the preferred style for the imperial thrones of those times. And even today, Minakari - with its unique carving style on Gold and Silver continues to dazzle women the world over with motifs of flowers, plants and scrolling vines.

Navratna Jewelry

The jewellery made from 9 Gems (called nine Ratna), to be worn as astrology is calledNavaratnajewellery. The belief behind this is that the nine stones together ensure well-being of the person who wears it. In India, Navratna jewelry has been given major importance, because of its astrological implication as well as its innate charm. The nine stones used in the jewelry Vajra (diamond), Manikya (ruby), Markat (emerald), Indraneel (sapphire), Pusp-rag (Pukhraj or Golden sapphire), Praval (coral), Mukta (pearl), Gomed (zircon) and Vaidurya (cat's eye). As it is believed in astrology, each planet watches over one of the nine gems and offer power.

Vajra to be worn for planet Shukra, Manikya is for Sun, Markat Mani for Buddh, Indraneel for Saturn, Pusp-rag for Guru, Praval for Mangal, Mukta for Chandra, Gomed for Rahu and Vaidurya for Ketu. Navratna jewelry can be set in rings, pendants, necklaces or armlets that are mounted, so that the stones touch the skin. The weight of the stones is decided according to the individual's astrological chart.

Pachchikam:

The Pachchikam design is easily identifiable from other Indian jewellery like the Kundan jewellery of Jaipur and Jadtar, though at times it looks like the other one from a distance. But one can notice that at times the setting is very much simple because the work is done by hand. In spite of these variations Pachchikam jewellery is delicate compared to Kundan or Jadtar. Gold was replaced by silver later on since the former made the jewellery unaffordable to many. Research has also shown that this jewellery was worn by children in the past era.

Another reason for selecting for the silver to be the base metal is that it is highly malleable and it closely resembles platinum, the metal used in Europe. Pachchikam jewellery is very flashy in look which can be worn on formal occasions.

The design shaping of Pachchikam jewellery encases uncut semi-precious stones and glasswork which is in simulated open claw workmanship. Fabrication of this kind of jewellery takes place in Kutch a part of Gujarat state by families who specialize in such an art and has been handed down from generations.

Plane Gold Jewellery:

Gold is a metal that lures many. It gives the security against any financial crisis, because of its easy liquidity, and is also used by women for adorning themselves. Traditionally, gold has been considered auspicious among Hindus and is regarded to be symbolic of Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth. Gold is symbol of perfection, immortality and prosperity; it is the substance that myths and legends are made of. It is a favorite for making jewelry, for the reason that it is anti-rust and has an everlasting shine.

Kancheepuram in southern India and Varanasi in northern India have been the centre of gold jewelry making since the historic times. Gold has been used in making of brocades and weaving. Zardozi, which was brought in India by Mughals, used gold thread is in embroidery. An excellent craft, it is quite popular even today. Like other jewelry products, gold jewelry is typical to the region. Design and pattern of gold jewelry differs according to the area and tradition carried on historically.

Silver Jewellery:

Silver jewellery is used in glittery as well as dull and oxidized form. Women in rural areas and tribal areas wear heavy silver jewelry for body decoration. These heavy jewelries are meant for financial security during contingency, apart from being a source of adornment. The practice of making new jewelry by melting old silver jewelry is still practiced in major parts of India, but recently new trend has been seen reversal in market. Old silver jewelry is in demand and in fashion now. Oxidized silver jewellery, with traditional designs that gives old and rough look, is quite popular these days.

Latest silver jewellery is combined with gold or copper and studded with precious and semi-precious stones also with enamel work. Particularly in southern & western parts of India these types of ornaments are very popular. This type of jewellery is also popular in teen & middle age for traditional occasion or festivals because of light weight and of reasonable cost. The versatility can be observed in silver jewelry, as different states have indigenous influence over its design. The pattern and precision differ according to region and likes-dislikes of people. Many times, one can determine the marital status of women as well as her community by the jewelry she wears.

Sozo Jewellery

The fusion of elegant Thewa, intricate Meenakari and Majestic Victorian jewellery is commonly known as SOZO. It is derived from the Greek word for wholeness. It is a wholehearted endeavor to preserve the glorified art of jewellery making.Sozo is an art of brilliance and expertise in style. It has astounded and compelled both jewellery revelers and fashion aficionados to possess this luxurious, elegant yet affordable piece of artwork. It is an enticing concoction of elaborate gold designs inspired from Thewa, serenaded by the antique and exotic look of Victoria and the radiance of Meenakari. Sozo with awe-inspiring hues of vivacity is symbolic to a life of beauty, perfection and regal splendor. Innovative, distinct and trendsetting masterpieces are polished to perfection to make one feel young and special. Sozo is available with the combination ofgold, diamond, precious and semi-precious stones. Sozo brings wholeness and fulfillment in your life.

Stone Jewellery

Jewelry studded with different gems is quite popular among Indians. For reasons ranging from spiritual to aesthetic to health, gemstone jewelry has become the part of life of Indian women and men both. These stone jewelries are worn according to the individual's astrological chart and ruling of planet. Navaratna i.e. the combination of nine gems together, to form a necklace forms important part in the life and fashion of Indian women. These stones are believed to have extraordinary healing power.

Each gem in the mala has certain attributes of healing properties. Some stone jewelries are believed to protect against poisonous substances and banishe any evil spirits that hover around. The commercial importance of gems has been increasing recently, for various reasons like their traditional role in the life of Indians and growing consciousness among people. It is believed that except for the emerald, all other precious stones were mined in India. India had developed technology of gem preparation even in early centuries of Christian era.

Diamond has been considered the best gem. It is found in at least six colors and has connotations for six deities. According to common belief, green is attached with Vishnu (the Preserver), white with Varuna (god of Oceans), yellow with Indra (god of Heavens), brown with Agni (Fire god), blue with Yama (god of Death) and copper colored with the Maruts (Storm god). Besides the attachment of deities with each color of diamond, a spotless diamond is considered the abode of deities. A perfect diamond is considered to be the one that could float in water and has six elevated tips, eight equal sides and twelve sharp edges.

Apart from being used in ornamentation, gems are believed to have medicinal attributes too. As has traditionally been believed, the human body is composed of the seven colors of the rainbow, associated with seven kinds of rays. Diseases enter the body when there is a deficiency or excess of any ray in our body. Interestingly, each color is associated with a particular gem, which in turn is associated with a particular planet. Astrologically, a gem is beneficial when worn in the phase of a particular planet, as these stones also affect our health and destinies.

Temple jewellery:

Temple jewellery of India is defined as jewelley used to adorn the idol of god and goddess. Temple jewellery is generally large and chunky, with figures of various gods and goddess in gold fused to or forming the pendant on pearl string necklaces. The idol of gods and goddesses are offered a variety costumes and ornaments, which are strictly according to canonical injunctions.

The ornaments, such as haar (long necklace), pendant, armlet, crown and other ornaments are also very from god to god as per the iconographic texts. Temple jewellery could be made by the uses of gold, silver, copper, precious stones and pearls depending on the economic status of the persons.


In the temple jewellery, the idols were later worn by temple dancers and slowly, the designs became a part of the Indian woman's bridal jewelry trousseau. Though the idols continued to be decorated with jewellery, a practice seen even today, the jewelry of Indian women also came be made on the pattern. Today, temple jewellery has become open of the most popular crafts of India. During festivals and occasions of worship of Gods, women wear temple jewelry, believed to be auspicious and offer good luck.

Thewa Jewellery

Thewa is the art of 18th century inaugurated from Rajasthan, India. Thewa Jewellery is a different type of art work done by 23k gold and worked on glass. Unique glasses for Thewa Jewellery are treated by a special process to give a glittering effect, highlights the intricate gold work. The motifs used on Thewa jewellery are reflecting the culture, heritage and tales of romance and valor of State Rajasthan, India. Four gold sheets, each intended for a Thewa unit, are fixed to a lac-resin compound spread on a board. Following the design inscribed in line on the gold, an openwork pattern is pierced through the sheets using fine cutting chisels. The designs may be a hunting scene, a delicate climbing plant with equally delicate flowers and leaves, a gazing deer, a dancing peacock, a woman dressed up in typical Rajasthani attire, Krishna with gopikas and many other related to this theme.

Tribal jewellery:

While society for centuries was worn ornaments to look more attractive, the tribal wear them for very different socio-religious reasons. The symbolic value of the ornament is much more important than its material cost. All societies have used symbols down the ages; the interesting thing is to decipher what they mean, not how they may have originated.

This type of tribal jewellery made from bone, wood, clay, shells, crude metals, feather, horn, seeds, beads and many different material look like these. Tribal jewellery is not only attractive, but also holds a distinct rustic and earthy charm and also shows the artistic look. Tribal jewelry is made of the products that are available locally. The unrefined look of their jewelry is something that attracts people most. As has been said each tribe has its own indigenous jewelry craft. Tribal jewellery is gaining popularity as trendy or junk jewellery.

Ratna-Shastra:

The history of Indian jewellery cannot be considered complete without a study of the gems themselves. India has been one of the greatest trading centers for gem and other precious-semi precious stones throughout the starting period of Indian civilization and middle period of Indian history. The scientific knowledge of gemstones in India is very depth and do not need any equipment to identify the gems. This science is called Ratna-Shastra & to identification of the gems called Ratna-Pariksha.