Ruby is the oldest or first known of all precious stones dating back in early history. It is thus name because of its red colour. In Sanskrit it’s called “Padmarag” or “Vasu-Ratna”. It is a most valuable variety of transparent Corundum & an oxide of Aluminum. The colour ranges from pink to deep red. The most desirable colour is the so called “pigeon blood red”, pure red tinted with purple. Flawless specimens showing the most desirable colours are rare; the varieties of shades are due to the presence of a small quantity of oxide of chromium, and in the case of brownish tones, iron is present as well. As a rough stone, ruby appears dull and greasy, but, when cut, the luster can approach that of diamond. Heat treatment is commonly used to improve the colour. In whish ruby a star of rays is seen in a particular cut, is called “Star Ruby”. Ruby is the hardest mineral after diamond. The rubies with the finest colour come from the Mogok district of upper Burma (now calling Myanmar). Light red comes from Sri Lanka (Ceylon) & dark brownish-red from Thailand (Siam). Other sources for rubies are India, Pakistan and Tanzania. The highest quality, best colour and most transparent stones (usually from Burma), can be as valuable as diamonds, or even more so and exceeded in value only by emerald. Among the famous true rubies are “Anne of Brittany’s Ruby, De Long Star Ruby, Edwards Ruby, Peace Ruby and Rosser Reeves Star Ruby.