The variety of transparent corundum of any colour other then red (which is Ruby) & golden (Pukhraj). The name Sapphire is probably derived from Sanskrit word “Neelmani”. Sapphire can be a very dark blue, to the point of seeming dense and blackish from a distance, sometimes accompanied by a blue to dull green pleochroism, which is only visible from the side in the cut stones. They may also be a strong, but not to bright blue, easily recognizable from a distance this being the ideal colour. The usual and preferable best colour is pure cornflower-blue, like neck of peacock; it’s calling “MAYUR NEELAM” or “KASHMIR SAPPHIRE” because of find in Kashmir, India. Other colours available in sapphire are white, green, pink, brown, black, iron, orange, light red, & violet. Any sapphire that is not blue is sometimes called a “fancy sapphire”. Some sapphires change colour in daylight from that in artificial light. Sometimes the yellow variety of corundum called “Golden Sapphire” or “Pukhraj”, the dark green “Oriental Emerald” & the purple is “Oriental Amethyst”. Other sources of sapphire are Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Australia, United States, Tanzania & Malawi. Among the most famous or larger sapphires are the Bismarck Sapphire, Lincoln Sapphire, Logan Sapphire, Raspoli Sapphire, St. Edward’s Sapphire, Stuart Sapphire & Gem of the Jungle, and among those that show asterism are the Star of Asia & Star of India.