World’s Diamond Mines
Nobody knows that when and where the first diamond of the world found. But about Indian earliest history, people from India well knew about Diamonds from many years ago. Till 18th Century India was only producer of Diamonds. India has given many historical & world famous diamonds to the world. In 1725 Diamonds were found in Brazil & in 1866 Diamond were found in South Africa. Diamonds are now mined in many countries.
Diamonds we get from nature are available in vast range of colour like red, pink, blue, golden, green, black, brown, yellow, colourless etc. They are also divided in different qualities according to clarity. Diamonds are always capture hearts but a fiery brilliancy generate after proper cutting. Diamonds are precious, but they become prestigious after studding in jewellery.
When diamonds are come out from ground, river beds or seas after long journey its come to the market. Some of them bought by rich people for their beauty & status, some bought for medicines, some bought for science and industry and some for other use. But before to buy, use or wear you have to know more about Diamonds. (for more detail….)
Here the detail of diamond mines…..
- Catoca Diamond Mine:This is an operating open pit mine in Angola. This mine is fourth largest Diamond mine in world & first non-alluvial mine of Angola, which was owned by Sociedade Mineira de Catoca ltd. This mine is located 30 km north-west of Saurimo, in central-western Angola.
- Fucauma Diamond Mine:This Diamond mine is in Lunda Norte province, Angola & owned by Trans Hex and Angolan state company ENDIAMA.
- Luarica Diamond Mine:This mine is also owned by a consortium of diamond mining companies, the two largest holder being ENDIAMA with 38% ownership and Trans Hex with 32 percent owner-ship.
- Luzamba Diamond Mine:Angola’s largest alluvial mine, owned by Endiama with 50% & Odebrecht with 50%.
- Damtshaa Diamond Mine: This Diamond Mine is located in Botswana, about 220 kilometers (140 miles) west of the city of Francistown. Damtshaa, meaning “water for a tortoise”, is owned by Debswana, a partnership between the De Beers Company and the government of Botswana.
- Jwaneng Diamond Mine: This open pit mine is located in south-central Botswana, about 170 km (110 miles) west of the city of Gaborone, in the Naledi river valley of the Kalahari & richest mine in the world. The meaning of Jwaneng is “a place of small stones”. This mine is owned by Debswana, a partnership between the De Beers Company & the government of Botswana. The mine is located on three kimberlite pipes that converge near the surface, covering 5,20,000 square meter at ground level. The high rate of diamond extraction, combined with high quality diamonds fetching excellent per weight prices, make the Jwaneng diamond mine the richest diamond mine in the world by value of recovered diamonds. Jwaneng employs over 2,100 people. The mine also owns and operates a local hospital and Jwaneng airport. The mine maintains an ISO 14001 certificate for environmental compliance, being the first mine in Botswana to achieve this certification in 2000. Jwaneng is known for its excellent safety record, winning multiple national and international safety awards.
- Letlhakane Diamond Mine:This open pit diamond mine is located in Botswana about 190 kilometers (120 miles) west of the city of Francistown. Letlhakane, meaning “little reeds”, is owned by Debswana, a partnership between the De Beers Company and the government of Botswana. It is the second oldest of four mines operated by the company, having begun operations in 1975.
- Orapa Diamond Mine:The Orapa diamond mine is the world’s largest diamond mine. The mine is located in Orapa, a town in the Boteti Sub-District of Botswana about 240 km. (150 miles) west of the city of Francistown. Orapa (meaning “resting place for lions”) is owned by Debswana, a partnership between the De Beers Company and the government of Botswana. It is the oldest of four mines operated by the company, having begun operations in July 1971. Orapa is of open pit construction and is the largest diamond mine in the world by area. The mine is located on two kimberlite pipes that converge near the surface, covering 1.18 square km. at ground level. Orapa operates seven days per week, and produces 20 million tons per year of ore and an additional 40 million tons per year of waste rock. In 2003, the Orapa mine produced 16.3 million carats (3260 kg) of diamond.
- Bakwanga Diamond Mine: This mine (also called Mbuji-Maye) is located along the Bushimae and Lubiash tributaries to the Sankuru river, near the town of Mbuji-Maye in the Kasa-Oriental province of south-central Republic democratic the Congo.
- Forminiere Diamond Mine:This alluvial mine is located on the river Tshikapa, in Kasa.
Letseng Diamond Mine: This mine is the world’s highest operating mine, is found in the landlocked Southern Africa water and mountain kingdom of Lesotho. Located at 3.1 km. above sea level. This mine is owned by Gem Diamonds Ltd. and the government of Lesotho, and at an elevation of 3,100 m (10,000ft) it is the world’s highest diamond mine.
- Elizabeth Bay Mine: The Northern Areas is home to Namdeb’s Elizabeth Bay Mine, situatedapproximately 25 km south of Lüderitz, as well as the company’s marine and land contractor operations.
- Orange River Mine: This mine also known as Daberas Mine, which forms part of the area, is 65 km. north-east of Oranjemund. Orange River mining area is still resource-rich. In this mine Diamond was first discovered on the south bank of the lower Orange River in 1957. Prospecting on the northern bank started in 1968. The Orange River Mines Contribute 15% to Namdeb’s total revenue and 7.3% of carats produced. Diamonds recovered at the Orange River Mines are renowned for their quality and size.
- Magna Egoli Mine: The highly mechanized diamond mine, located on the Sewa River, has hitherto sold its production on the local Sierra Leone market. Magna Egoli’s mining plan includes planned exploration of a 22 square mile area north of the current mining area, which would secure continued and uninterrupted production for at least five years. The Magna Egoli mine, after it’s restructuring under new ownership, is expected to reach full production in July.
- Koidu-Sefadu Mine: Subsistence digging in alluvium pits mine, in west of Koidu.
- Koidu Open Pit Mine: A major African mine for diamond panning in Open Pit Mines, in south of Koidu.
- Baken Diamond Mine: The Baken Diamond Mine is a diamond mine located along the lower Orange River in South Africa. The mine is owned and operated by Trans Hex. The central processing plant has been operational at Baken since 2001.
- Cullinan Diamond Mine or Premier Mine: The Premier Mine is an underground diamond mine owned by Petra Diamonds. It is situated in the town of Cullinan, 40 kilometres east of Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Established in 1902, it was renamed the Cullinan Diamond Mine in November 2003 in celebration of its centenary. The mine rose to prominence in 1905, when the Cullinan Diamond — at the time the largest gem diamond ever — was discovered here. It is also the only diamond mine in the world where blue diamonds have been discovered. The Cullinan Diamond is the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). It was found by Frederick Wells, surface manager of the Premier Diamond Mining Company in Cullinan, Gauteng, South Africa, on January 25, 1905. The stone was named after Sir Thomas Cullinan, the owner of the diamond mine.
- Finsch Diamond Mine: The Finsch Mine is an underground Diamond mine, located near Lime Acres, 160km northwest of Kimberly, is one of seven operations managed by De Beers Consolidated Mines (DBCM), formed in July 2004. The Finsch mine is a traditional Diamondiferous Kinberlite pipe, extending around 17.9ha. Reserves are sufficient for another 23 years. Underground development started in 1978 and the shaft was commissioned in 1982.
- Kimberley Diamond Mine: Kimberley is a city in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. It is located near the confluences of the Vaal and Orange River. The town has considerable historical significance due its diamond mining past and Siege during the Second Boer War. Notable personalities such as Cecil John Rhodes, made their fortune here, and the roots of the DE Beers corporation can also be traced to the early days of the mining town. This Open Pit Mine is started in 1871 & closed in 2005.
- Koffiefontein Diamond Mine: Koffiefontein Mine is a Diamond Mine situated in the Free State province, about 80 km from Kimberley,South Africa. It is one of the many Kimberley mines of which Kimberleymine, De Beers Mine, Dutoitspan, Bultfontein and Wesselton are its more famous neighbours. The mine was opened in 1870 and consisted of 1200 claims and worked at a large scale in the beginning of the century. However several sources quote it to have a poor yield: 4 to 5 carat (800 to 1000 mg) in 100 loads and according to Streeter the mines were not profitable at all by the end of the 19th century. Streeter also noted that in particular the diamonds of the Koffiefontein and Jagersfontein were of the “first water”; meaning of very good clarity. There was little on the surface to mark the position of these deposits, some deposits were slightly raised above the surface, some showed a small depression, and it was only after mining started that the extent of the deposits became clear. The mine has been closed several times in its history and never became a large production site. The total production of the mine was 7.3 million carats (1460 kg), and the largest gem weighed 139 carats (27.8 g). The mine was most recently reopened in 1987 however De Beers announced its final closure in January 2006. In November Petra announced it was in advanced talks with De Beers to take over the mine.
- The Oaks Diamond Mine: This Open Pit mine is in Limpopo province, opperated by De Beers.
- Venetia Diamond Mine: The Venetia Diamond Mine is South Africa’s largest producer of diamonds. Over 40% of world’s gem quality diamonds produce from this mine. It is situated close to the South African town of Alldays in the Limpopo Province and is located within the 360 km² Venetia Limpopo Nature Reserve. The open-pit mine is one of De Beers’ six remaining diamond mines in South Africa and the only major diamond mine to be developed in the country during the past 25 years. As such, the mine represents one of De Beers’ single biggest investments in South Africa. The mine was opened in 1992 by Harry Oppenheimer, a former De Beers chairman. In 2004 the mine had 955 employees and recovered 7,187,300 carats (1437.5 kg) of diamonds from 5,871,000 metric tons of ore.
- Williamson Diamond Mine: The Williamson Diamond Mine (also known as the Mwaduimine) is a famous diamond mine in Tanzania; it became well known as the first significant diamond mine outside of South Africa. The mine was established in 1940 by Dr. John Williamson, a Canadian geologist, and has been continuous operation since then, making it one of the oldest continuously operating diamond mines in the world. Over its lifetime it has produced over 19 million carats (3,800 kg) of diamonds. The Williamson mine, once owned by its namesake Dr. Williamson and later nationalized by the government of Tanzania, is now majority owned by Petra Diamonds (75% ownership), with the government of Tanzania owning the remaining 25%.
- Murowa Diamond Mine:The Murowais a diamond mine located in south central Zimbabwe, about 40 kilometres from Zvishavane. The mine is majority owned and operated by the Rio Tinto Group, which also owns the Argyle Diamond Mine in Australia and part of the Diavik Diamond mine in Canada. The Murowa site’s possibilities were first realized in 1997, when three diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes were discovered; over a period of three years of study, the two larger pipes have been determined to be economically feasible as mines. Construction of mine facilities was completed in late 2004. Preparation for mining included the forced relocation of 926 people living on the mine site to six farms purchased by a government relocation program. Limited mining operations began in Murowa in 2004, with full capacity expected to be reached sometime in 2005, although permitting problems have slowed progress toward this milestone. Full scale production is expected to process 200,000 tonnes of ore annually, although it is possible to push production to as much as one million tonnes annually through further capital investment. The mine is a combination of Open Pit and underground construction; current estimates put construction costs at $61 million US$. Current estimates of mine reserves are 19 million tonnes of ore, with an ore grade of 0.9 carats per tonne (180 mg/t). Rio Tinto estimates that over the life of the mine, prices for the Murowa’s production will fetch an average price of $65 USD per carat (325 $/g).
River Ranch Diamond Mine: The River Ranch Diamond Mine is Open Pit & underground mine, 75% owned by De Beers.
- *Argyle Diamond Mine: The Argyle Diamond Mine is located in the KImberley region of Western Australia. The Argyle mine is the largest diamond producer in the world by volume, although due to the low proportion of gem-quality diamonds is not the leader by value. It is the only known significant source of pink diamonds, producing 90 to 95% of the world’s supply. The Argyle diamond mine is also notable for being the first successful commercial diamond mine exploiting a volcanic pipe of lamproite, rather than the more usual kimberlite pipe. Much earlier commercial attempts to mine diamonds from a lamproite pipe in Arkansas in the southern United States were unsuccessful; the lamproite pipe there is now contained within the Crater of diamond State Park. The Argyle mine is owned by the Rio Tinto Group, a diversified mining company which also owns the Diavik Diamond MIne in Canada and the Muvora Diamond Mine in Zimbabwe.The Argyle diamond mine is located in the Kimberley region in the far northeast of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is located to the southwest of Lake Argyle in the Mastu Ranges, about 550 kilometres (340 miles) southwest of Drawin. Because the mine is located about 120 kilometres (75 miles) from the nearest settlement (Kununurra), a complete residential camp has been constructed on site. Most of the 520 workers commute from Perth (over 2,000 kilometres, or 1,200 miles, away) for alternating two week shifts at the mine. The mine has encouraged local employment and has a large number of indigenous local people working within the mine. The mine covers about 450,000 square metres (110 acres), stretching in a mostly linear shape about 1600 metres (5,200 ft) long and 150 to 600 metres (500 to 2,000 ft) wide. The mine is of open pit construction, and reaches about 600 metres (1,900 ft) deep at its deepest point.The Argyle diamond mine leads the world in volume production of diamond, averaging annual production of 35 million carats (7,000 kg), or about one third of global production of natural diamonds.
- Marlin Diamond Mine:The Merlin diamond mine is other diamond mine in Australia. The mine is located in the Northern Territory of Australia, about 80 kilometres south of Borroloola. The mine operated for a period of about four years from 2000 to mid-2003, during which time it produced about 500,000 carats (100 kg) of high quality diamonds. The Merlin mine has an unusually high proportion of gem-quality diamonds: 65% of production is gem-quality, and only 35% is classified as near-gem or industrial quality. This compares to a worldwide average of just 20% gem-quality diamond production at diamond mines worldwide, and a mere 5% gem-quality production at Australia’s only other diamond mine, Argyle diamond mine.
- *Diavik Diamond Mine: The Diavik Diamond Mine is a diamond mine in the North Slave Region of the North-west Territories, Canada, about 300 km. (186 miles) north of Yellowknife It has become an important part of the regional economy, employing 700, grossing C$ 100 million in sales, and producing 8 million carats or about 1,600 kg (3,500 lb) of diamonds annually. The mine is owned by a joint venture between the Harry Winston Diamond Corporation and Diavik Diamond Mines Inc., a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Group. The lifespan of the mine is expected to be 16 to 22 years. The mine consists of three kimberlite pipes and is located on an island 20 squire kilometers in LacDe Gras and is informally called East Island. It is about 220 kilometres (137mi) south of the Arctic Circle.
- Ekati Diamond Mine:The Ekati Diamond Mine is Canada’s first diamond mine. It is located near Lac de Gras 300 kilometres (186mi) north-east of Yellowknife, North-West Territories, and about 200kilometres (124mi) south of the Arctic circle. The Ekati deposit was discovered in 1991 by Chuck Fipke and Stewart Blusson, who had been prospecting in the region for almost ten years, having found kimberlite indicator minerals as early as 1985. The first kimberlite pipe in Canada was discovered at Point Lake. This was followed by the largest staking rush in world history. Ekati officially opened on October 14, 1998, and is operated by BHP Billiton Diamonds Inc., a part of the BHP Billiton Group, the world’s largest diversified resources company. Ekati is a joint venture between BHP Billiton Diamonds Inc. (80%), and the two geologists who discovered kimberlite pipes north of Lac de Gras, Chuck Fipke and Stewart Blusson each holding a 10% stake in the mine
- Jericho Diamond Mine:This mine is a diamond mine located in Canada’s Nunavut territory. The mine is located about 400 km (249 mi) northeast of Yellowknife, North-west Territories and is Canada’s third diamond mine and Nunavut’s first. The mine is operated by Tahera Diamond Corporation and the company was provided with CAN$35 million loan by Tiffeny & Co. to assist in construction of the site. The mine is estimated to be able to produce 375,000 carats a year with a value of CAN $25 million. In the first half of 2006 the mine had processed 210,000 tonnes for 126,918 carats.
- Snap Lake Diamond Mine:The Snap Lake Diamond Mine is located about 220kilometres (140mi) northeast of Yellowknife, North-west Territories and according to De Beers, upon finalization will be their first mine outside Africa and Canada’s first completely underground diamond mine.
- *Golconda Diamond Mine:Golconda or Golkonda was a collaspse city of south-central India and capital of anciant Kingdom of Golkonda, is situated in west of Hyderabad in state Andhra Pradesh. Golconda was built by fourth Qutb king Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah Wali. Golconda region was located in between the lower reaches of Krishna & Godavari Rivers. Golkonda was once renowned for the diamonds found on the southeast and cut in the city. India, at that time, had the only known diamond mines in the world. Till eighteenth century India was the only Diamond producer in the World. So, all historical diamonds have roots in India. The Mines of Golkonda themselves yielded diamonds of trifling quantity. Europeans knew that diamonds were found only in these fabled mines. Golkonda was, in fact, the market city of the diamond trade, and gems sold there came from a number of mines. The fortress city within the walls was famous for diamond trade. India’s most prized diamonds are known as the “diamonds of Golconda”. Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including Darya-e-noor, meaning sea of light, was a rare blue-diamond weighted 186 carats, the largest and finest diamond, which was owned by the Nadir Shah of Persia after it was plundered from the last ‘Great Mughal Emperor,’ Aurangzeb’s heirs in the ‘sack of Delhi’ in 1739. Its name has taken a generic meaning and has come to be associated with great wealth. Many famous diamonds are believed to have been excavated in the mines of Golkonda which include:
-The Koh-I Noor
-The Hope Diamond
-The Regent Diamond
-The Hope Diamond
-The orloy Diamond
-The Sancy Diamond(for more information about world famous diamonds)By the 1880s, Golkonda was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any particularly rich mine, and later to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name “Golkonda” acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth. The mines brought riches to the ruling Qutb Shais of Hyderabad State, who ruled after the independence from the Mughals in 1724, until 1948, when Hyderabad was annexed, to become an Indian state.
* Vajrakarur Diamond Mine: The Vajrakarur has a major significance as this was the first ever diamond mine in a kimberlitic found in near Krishna River, Andhra Pradesh. Diamonds were mined here much earlier than Kimberly.
- Panna Diamond Mine:A large group of deposits extends south-west from Allahabad for 150 miles (240km) or so, and is known as the Panna group. They do not cover an area of more than 20 acres (81,000m2). Great pits, 25feet (7.6 m) in diameter and, perhaps, 30feet (9.1m) in depth, are dug for the sake of reaching the Diamond conglomerate, which, in many cases, was only a very thin layer. According to Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Tieffenthaler was the first European to visit the mines in 1765 and claimed that the Panna diamonds could not compare in hardness and fire with other locations in India. No really large diamonds have come from this area.The most productive mines were in the 1860s and were found in Sukirah, around 20 miles (32km) from Panna. Four classifications were given to the Panna diamonds: first, Motichul, clear and brilliant 2nd, Manik, verging in tint towards green ; 3rd, Panna, with a faint orange tint 4th, Bunsput, sepia coloured. Diamond mines in Panna are managed under the Diamond Mining Project of National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC Ltd) of Government of India. Every year the land is leased to prospective miners by the government agency. The diamonds unearthed are all collected by the district magistrate of Panna and are auctioned in the month of january.
- Aikhal GOK mone:Aikhal GOK is an open pit kimberlite pipe mine in Siberia.
- Anabar GOK Mine:The Northern most location of Russis’s diamond mines.
- Jubilee Mine:This is new open pit kimberlite mine near Udachny, Alrosa.
- Mirney Mine:The Mirney or Mirna Diamond mine is an abandoned open pit diamond mine located in Mirny, Eastern Siberia. The mine is 525 m deep and has a diameter of 1200 m. It was the first and one of the largest diamond pipes of the USSR. Mir Mine was discovered on June 13, 1955 by Soviet geologists Yuri Khabardin, Ekaterina Elagina and V. Adeenko during the large Amakinsky Expedition in Yakut ASSR. It was operated for almost 50 years, finally closing on April 30, 2004while in operation, Mir Mine gave out 2 million carats annually. It takes trucks close to 2 hours to drive from the bottom to the top.
- Udachnaya pipe Mine:This is a diamond deposit in the Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field in Sakha Republic, Russia. It is an open pit mine, and is located just outside the Arctic circle at Udachnaya was discovered on June 15, 1955, just two days after the discovery of the diamond pipe Mir by Soviet geologist Vladimir Shchukin and his team. It is more than 600 metres deep. As of 2004, Udachnaya pipe is controlled by Russian diamond company Alrosa, which plans to halt open-pit mining in favor of underground mining in 2010.